HOW FAR THIS IS TRUE?? MAY BE NOT ALL IN MALAYSIA; Female professors earn less on average than their male counterparts because they focus on underappreciated “academic citizen” roles that do not lead to promotion or pay rises, a new study suggests. Male professors devote less time to mentoring duties, serving on university committees and other “academic citizen” roles, and instead concentrate on their own research – an activity more likely to win them external recognition and a pay rise.
the academicians are in medium level of overall happiness which had served as the essential key components for upgrading the level of happiness. Therefore, the University top management should promote and increase subjective well-being among academicians to be competitive.